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 December 2014 ISSUE

 
GLOSSARY

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Caffeine: a stimulant drug found in many food products such as coffee, tea and cola drinks; stimulates the central nervous system.

Calcific tendonitis: a deposit of calcium in a chronically inflamed tendon, especially the tendons of the shoulder.

Calcium: a silver-white metallic element essential to human nutrition.

Calisthenic: exercise involving free movement without the aid of equipment.

Caloric deficit: a negative caloric balance whereby more calories are expended than consumed: weight loss will occur.

Calorie: a measure of heat energy. A small calorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. A large Calorie (kilocalorie, KC or C) is 1,000 small calories.

Calorimeter: a device used to measure the caloric value of a given food, or heat production of animals or humans.

Carbohydrates: a group of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Glucose, glycogen, sugar, starches, fiber, cellulose and the various saccharides are all carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate loading: a dietary method used by endurance-type athletes to help increase the carbohydrate (glycogen) levels in their muscles and liver.

Cardiorespiratory endurance: ability to perform activities for extended periods of time.

Carnitine: a chemical that facilitates the transfer of fatty acids into the mitochondria for subsequent oxidation.

Catabolism: destructive metabolism whereby complex chemical compounds in the body are degraded to simpler ones.

Catalase: an enzyme that helps neutralize free radicals.

Catastrophic injury: relates to a permanent injury of the spinal cord that leaves the athlete quadriplegic or paraplegic.

Cellulite: a name given to the lumpy fat that often appears in the thigh and hip region of women. Cellulite is simply normal fat in small compartments formed by connective tissue, but may contain other compounds that bind water.

Cellulose: The fibrous carbohydrate that provides the structural backbone for plants: plant fiber.

CHD: coronary heart disease; a degenerative disease of the heart caused primarily by arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart.

Chiropractor: one who practices a method for restoring normal condition by adjusting the segments of the spinal column.

Cholesterol: a fat-like substance found in all animal fat and oils: a main constituent of some body tissues; involved in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.

Chromium: a whitish metal essential to human nutrition; it is involved in carbohydrate metabolism via its role with insulin.

Chronic injury: injury with long onset and long duration.

Chronic-training effect: physiological changes in the body brought on by repeated bouts of exercise, that will help make the body more efficient during exercise.

Circuit training: a combination of aerobic and weight training exercises arranged in a circuit or sequence.

Coenzyme: an activator of an enzyme; many vitamins are coenzymes.

Collagen: main organic constituent of connective tissue.

Complementary proteins: Combining plant foods such as rice and beans so that essential amino acids deficient in one of the foods are provided by the other in order to obtain a balanced intake of essential amino acids.

Complete protein: a protein that contains all nine essential amino acids in the proper proportions; animal protein is complete.

Complex carbohydrates: a term used to describe foods high in starch, such as bread, cereals, fruits and vegetables, as contrasted to simple carbohydrates such as table sugar.

Concentric contraction: the muscle shortens while contracting against resistance.

Core temperature: internal or deep body temperature monitored by cells in the hypothalamus, as opposed to shell, or peripheral, temperature which is registered by that layer of insulation provided by the skin, subcutaneous tissues and superficial portions of the muscle masses.

Creatine: a nitrogren-containing compound found in the muscles, usually complexed with phosphate to form phosphocreatine. Reported to assist in energy production.

Cruciferous vegetables: vegetables in the cabbage family, such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale and all cabbages.

Cryokinetics: cold application combined with exercise.

Cryotherapy: cold therapy.

Before attempting any exercise or diet modification, always consult a fitness or medical professional.
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